Candles For The Nation

 

                                                               A last part

 

CANDLES FOR THE NATION

 

 

 

Do we have to be someone

When our nations are all gone

One  by  one

 

 

Index

- Islam at Asia and Europe

  Austria, Switzerland , Hungary, Romania, Georgia ,   etc……….

-Islam at Transoxiana (Central Asia),  Transcausia , and Transylvania

 (central Europe).

 

 

Preface :

     By the mid 7th  century AD , central, eastern and north eastern Europe came under Moslem Caliphate’s rule.  After  inheriting  lands and power,  Romans  who adopted Eslam became powerful allies in the Caliphate having their self-rule .

     From 630 , Roman Syria under heroic Abaida Ebn el Jarah ,  Roman Egypt under heroic Amr Ebn Elas and later by 640 Mesopotamia and Persia by heroic Khalid ebn el Walid entered Eslam.

     The Rashedeen Caliphs covered most of world domains in a unified Caliphate, each nation under its own inhabitants’ self-rule.

      The Selucids and manguzakides Romans in Anatolia, who ruled Erzurum  أرض الروم  (Erdurum )  (Theodoscopolis), and the Danishmandides in the central plain Caesarea, after adopting Eslam had their seml-administration and rule in their lands.

    As others among whom were the Seljuk Romans, pushed  through Iraq and Persia by the 10th c. and put themselves under the Abbasids  Caliph’s service. Later creating the Rum Sulatanate (سلطنه الروم) .

(Romans Sultans ).

 

     Principalities (Welayat or states) around the Don ,  Danube , Crimea, Black and Baltic seas all came under the united Caliphate’s rule uniting nations without  boundaries.

     The first recorded union of Slavic tribes stretching from Silesia to Slovenia was achieved in mid 7th c..

سلاف = صقالبه اوروبا الوسطي والشرقيه .

 

 

Thrace:  تراقيا   

     A Historical region in east southern Balkans including : east Greece, southern Bulgaria, and western Turkey.  During the first century AD, Slav and Gothic tribes immigrated to the area.

     By the 7th century AD Slavs erected a Bulgarian state in the region which continued till the Ottomans arrived.  Ottomans called the region Romelly (from Rome).

     Eastern Romely’s first wali  ruler)  was Lala Shahin, its capital Qelia, present (Yoluvdev). 

 

Transylvania: (central Europe)   = mid Elbania

(the letter b transferred to v in the Persian and Turkish language) .

 (word for Albania), as Albania first existed in central Asia (as Volga Bulgaria), expanding and tribes moving to central Europe.

     It seems that it expanded much further .  Scotland was called Alba and even England’s old name was Albion. الالبيون

 

Eslam at Czechoslovakia  :

Bohemia : sometimes refers to the entire Czech territory, duchy of Bohemia 870 .

Part of the Hungarian – Romanian empire 1004.

Moravia (eastern Czech) .  First Slavonic state to emerge in central Europe in what is now the territory of Czech republic of Slovenia.  That country formed Czechoslovakia. (Preceded by Samos).

     It was preceded by Samos which included : Silesia, Bohemia, Lusatia, Carantania and Bavaria.

 

 

Eslam in Austria :

     The name Austria from the word Ostereich meaning east, though in Latin the word Austria is parallel to south.  In Arabia called Nemsa  النمسا .  Probably before the region was divided  as part of the Czech Nemsky region.

     From the fourth century BC, Celtic people lived in Austria.   By the end of the first century  AD, Romans conquered the region as far north as the Danube and in the fourth century AD , they crushed the province of Noricum.  They built Vinebon (Vienne).

     From the 4th c. AD , waves of tribesmen including Germans and Avars overran Austria, followed by Magyars , who finally mingled with them.

     The Alp region : Austria, Slovenia through Switzerland and Italy, Leictensthein, Germany till France was ruled by Moslems and also later Turkey before the Austerlitz battle.

     By the tenth century AD , Otto attacked the Magyars .

     During the 10th c. Austria became the residence place for the Habsburg dynasty.  It got its name from the Habsburg castle.

 

Eslam in Switzerland:

     Another city by the Alps.

Alps = white.

     Earliest Latin culture.  Tribes were members of the Hallstat and Latene cultures of early age before 8-6th Bc.

     One of the most important tribal groups in the Swiss region was the Helvetti, steadily harassed by the Germanic tribes .  In 58 BC they immigrated to Gallia, but Julius Caesar defended them and they moved back.  Tiberius and his brother Brusus conquered the Alps integrating them into the Roman empire.

     As Avars poured to Germany  (Bavaria-from Avar) and central  Europe, they dominated  the area by 568, later to be ceded and ruled as other  Moslem Caliphate’s states.

     It existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of Swiss federal constitution in 1848.,  After series of military success against Austria and Burgundy, its independence from the holy roman empire was recognized in the peace of Westphalia 1648.

 

Eslam at Prussuia :

     A cluster of Baltic tribes inhabited the region of old Prussia.

The Prussian Welaya (Velayat), that was part of the Moslem Arabian Caliphate named after its aboriginal inhabitants of the Baltic region.

     Some of the ancient cities in the region were : Emerlai, Pomeronia. Magdelburg,  Calif Minde, Osanbruch, west Prussia…..

Some of its territories are in the modern countries of Estonia, Talie, Poland and Russia.

     The 11th c. AD  records the Samanids ruling in Prussia.  The great Moslem Persian Samanid kingdom that stretched from Transoxiana (central Asia) to north eastern Europe .

     After Crusades defeat  in Jerusalem by Saladin 1178, Teutonic brothers who erected hospitals in Acre claiming to help crusades,  retreated to Europe plundering Moslem cities in their way back.  They settled in Transylvania 1211 whose rulers allowed them in, but tension arose as Teutonic monks wanted to enforce Catholicism on its inhabitants. 

     During the 13thc. AD Old Prussia was attacked and plundered by fanatic Teutonic knights killing nearly most of its inhabitants.

     After  Teutonic German monks separated from the holy Roman empire, Germans conquered Prussia.  and created a kingdom under Polish rule and electors of Bradenburg  crowned themselves kings of Prussia.  After a 30 years war, Fredrick united Bradenburg and Prussia for the transitional period .

       In 1466, Prussia was divided, a kingdom under Polish rule throne , and the other in 1525 as the emirate of Prussia. That was later united to electoral Bradenburg  in 1618. 

     Kingdom of Prussia became the dominant member of the crown union of the German empire.

     Prussia shaped nearly third of the land of the German empire which included Prussia, Germany, Poland, Lithuania, Denmark, Belgium and Czech  and was called the second Reich.  Decline of empire 18-19th c.

     In 1918 Prussia became a republic. 

     Prussia’s end was after world war two when the allies’ war council ordered its dissolution in 1947.

     Today Germany shares the old Prussian land of 1871 with six other nations among which are France and Russia.

 

 

Transylvania  :

Eslam at Hungary and Romania

The horrifying massacres.

 

Eslam at Hungary :

    In the 6th c., Caucasian nomadic Avars  (Turkic speaking), swept from central Asia to the Balkans.  They conquered central Europe and ruled the region. 

     Note : With the Arabian conquest of Dagestan 7th c.  (Avars ruled from Saraya سرايا in Dagestan), the area came under Arabian Caliphate rule.

     By the ninth century Franconian attacks started .  Franks attacked Hungary and conquered parts of it.   In 843 AD, the Frankish kingdom was divided into three, parts ; Hungary became part of the eastern third.

     In 896 AD  Magyars (Turkish horsemen  tribes chieftains) from central Asia arrived.  They conquered eastern Hungary and in 900 AD , they conquered the western part.  Hungary became the Magyars homeland.  They continued raiding other parts of Europe till in 955 Otto defeated them.

     In the late 10th c., Giza I Arpad Haci حجي   made himself a powerful leader.  Magyars seized Romania’s portion in Baheria بحيره  ; its ruler first resisted Magyars conquest  of intra-Carpathian regions of present Romania, but later gave his daughter in marriage to Zultan (Sultan), Moslem son of Arpad, the grand prince of the Hungarians.

(Arpad, the chosen chieftain by the 7 Hungarian tribes to lead them westward from their dwelling place on the Don river 889 AD where they settled on Panonian or Hungarian plain).

     According to the chronicles, Transylvania was ruled by allies of princes called gyula (leader) probably of Turkish origin as Tahsony’s (Taksony) wife was an eastern  Pecheneg.

     The Gesta Hungarorum  records that Moslem Pecheneg groups settled in Hungary.

En.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taksony-of-Hungary

     Taksony تحسني (931-970) was the son of Zoltan  (Soltan), third grand-prince of Hungarians.  He succeeded his father Arpad.  Gesta Hungarorum lists Zoltan among the great princes and all later Hungarian monarchs were descendants from him.

     But their country was occupied by Stephen I (born non Christian) (his original name Vayk (= بك  a title probably- بيه  بيك  ( He was son of a Magyar chieftain but as his father refused Christianity, the church blinded him and his son was raised by them as Christian.

     He combated his cousin Koppany قباني   who claimed the throne in accordance with Arpad succession rules.  Koppany was descendant of Arpad’s oldest son Tarkatzus.  Koppany was lord of Zola, ruler of Samogy  and he administered the south western region of TransDanubia during the reign of Giza 970-997.

     Stephen  defeated  Koppany in 998 And had him executed as a pagan.  His corpse was cut in four pieces to be displayed on the walls of four major  strongholds of his reign.   He also killed his uncle Gyula the young.

     Stephen was baptized and crowned  in 1003 AD , and given sainthood Szent Istvan.

Civil wars erupted after his death.

     In 1241, Mongols invaded Hungary and Hungarians’ army was rooted in the battle of Muhi.

     In 1308, a Frenchman described Hungary as an empty land.

     Cazmir king of Poland died without a heir and for a short time Poland and Hungary were united. 

     Poland became a separate realm in 1386.  In 1458 Mathias became king of Hungary.  He died 1490.  Peasants rebelled 1514.

     When the pope called for a crusade against Turks, the Turkish ruler Soliman rooted them in 29 August 1526 and Turkey kept in control of Hungary’s main key fortress.

      Hungary was divided between Joan Zapolaya  who ruled the eastern part and swore loyalty to the sultan and the Habsburg kings who claimed the western part (Ferdinand and Maxmillian).

     Ottomans won in the battle of Mahocs and king Louis II was killed.  In 1528 Ferdinand attacked but was defeated again, but he held Croatia and the western parts of the plain till upper ungary..   Zapolya formed an alliance with T Hungary. 

     Turks ruled central Hungary with the capital Debrecen .  Eastern Hungary emerged as predecessor of the principality of Transylvania.

     Turks continued to rule till the 18th century.

Torook family one of Turkish rulers.

Torok = Turkish in Hungarian language

Localhistories.org

     By the end of the 18thc. , Hungary was divided into three parts; as the Turkish power waned. 

In 1699 Turkey made peace with the Habsburg.

In 1703, Hungarians rose in revolt.  In 1711 Habsburgs

In late 18th century it came under the administration of the Habsburgs.

And in 1867 the Austrian empire transferred into the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary.

After world war I the region was divided.

En.wikipedia.org.

     Barania البرانيه     in the former kingdom of Hungary, southern Hungary, on border with Croatia’s capital Pecs; in the end of the 17th c., it was captured by the Habsburgs and included into their kingdom after the Battle of Mahocs. 

     In 1918 Serb troops captured entire Barania.

  

Eslam at Poland :

Polsk –Polska.

West Slavonic culture.

     As usual, history of Poland begins by the 10th century after being Christianized.

     But history can’t omit that Poland was part of historical Prussia that came under Moslem Caliphate rule and first university was erected there.  Mongol’s invaded Poland and it submitted to khanates’ rule  till attacked by western powers in the fourteenth century  and was base for expanding east into Russian Moslem Khanates,  allying with Habsburgs of Austria.    

     Since 1385 after adding Lithuania,  Jageillon ruled Poland and Lithuania in a personal union.

In November 1444, after killing its ruler Wladyslaw III became grand-duke of Lithuania Pomerania .

www.en.wiki.com

     Krakow, who ruled later , supported the Jews.  It was partly due to him that Poland came to have a large Jewish community.

Localhistories.org.

 

Romania :

     Once the nucleus of the kingdom of Dacia 82 BC .  I 106, the Roman empire conquered the territory.  After Romans withdrew , Romania was conquered by A series of warriors tribes : Carp, Visigoths, Huns , Gepids, Avars and Slavs.

     Slavs founded several settlements in Bucharest city.

     While Magyars after a northward  migration from Balka Peninsula, conquered much of central Europe , settled at Hungary .  In 1003 Romania was a voivadship within the kingdom of Hungary  ( Voivade) highest rank official in Transylvania.

     According to some studies it was part of the first Bulgarian empire 681 which was part of the Moslem  Caliphate. 

     Famous Arabian cities in Romania emerged as Walachia ولايه الافلاق  ,Bas Arabia which lasted until the 19th c.  In 1859 it was united with Moldova to form the united principalities which later adopted the name Romania in 1866 and later kingdom of Romania 1881.

     Bucharest  that was an extension of the Arab cultural center in Bukhara central Asia under the Samans’ dynasty rule.

       From 9-11ths century Bulgarian khanates ruled Transylvania.

          In 1000, it was subject to invasions by Pecheneg and Cumans .  Then conquered by Mongols during the 1241 invasion of Europe.

      It was later divided between Magyars and the second Bulgarian empire.

      Bucharest is first mentioned by Francs as the capital of Buchcharesti.  It became one of the residences of the famed prince Vlad iii (Drakola), one of two capitals; Tragonete another .  Vlad  preferred summer residence there.

By 14th c Romania was under Ottomans rule. 

     Bucharest:  the city was wrested from Ottoman control and occupied at several intervals 1716, 1737, 1789 and Imperial Russia.

     It was placed under Russian administration between 1828 and the Crimean war.

     An Austrian garrison took possession of it after the Russian departure till 1857.

     In 1847, a fire destroyed about 2000 buildings, a third of the city.

     1862 Wallachia and Moldova were united to form the principality of Romania .  Bucharest became  the main nation’s capital city.

     Following the dissolution of Austrian-Hungarian empire, and the resolutions of the elected representatives of Romania in 1918, some eastern parts of principalities as Moravians were allocated to the new kingdom of Romania joining the western Romanian state.

     Eastern parts of principality of Moldova (formerly an Ottoman vassal) under Ottoman rule were ceded to imperial Russia.  , Turkish Basarabia, Bukoving, Traspira .other parts of Barat Crimea and Moravians were allocated to the new kingdom of Romania.

     1916-1918, the city was occupied by German forces.

     Then came the Communist regime .

     Romania’s revolution 1989 led to the overthrow of the communist regime.

 

Vlad the impaler  فلاد المخزوق  

     Termed Drakola (Vampire)    

تنظيم التنين

Order of the Dragon :  was issued by the Vatican to cleanse Europe from Moslems and enforce  Catholicism  among its inhabitants.

     The fanatic bloody campaign that ensued in horrifying massacres, issued originally to combat Moslems and non-Catholic inhabitants.  Vlad  the impaler was the most famous for implementing it.

     Vampire (Drakola) by the English novelist Bran Stocker  narrated Drakola as a bloodthirsty vampire.

     The Dragon organization committed unbelievable blood-shedding massacres ending in Romania without any of its previous  Moslem citizens.

 

Belarus:   روسيا البيضاء  capital Minsk

     [First settled by Baltic tribes, later Slavs.  The gradual assimilation of Baltic and slaves was peaceful in nature. 

     After being attached in the ninth century several principalities arose,  but it resisted the Franks and ousted them.  Among thosed principalities that of Polatsk .

     In the 13th c., it came under Mongol attacks and rule.

     In 1380, it was joined to Poland, Lithuania, and later joined to the Russia. And in 1922 it became part of the Soviet union; then got its independence after its dissolution.

 

 

 

Transoxiana   (Central Asia-states - behind the river)

بلاد ما وراء النهر 

States in between the rivers is a term for the cities between Degla and Euphrates river.

 

Crimea :

North of the black sea – بخس سراي

    شبه جزيره القرم

     During Islamic era , Crimea was called Ak Masjid أق مسجد  = the white mosque in the Crimean language.

Qirim – Kirim by the Turks كيريم

     The area was inhabited by Moslem citizens under Moslem rule before crusading attacks and cleansing.

     It later became part of Ottomans’ rule.

     In 1475, Doros , (Mangup) Crimea’s capital became Turkish vassal of the Ottoman empire ; the longest of khanates that succeeded the empire of the golden horde established by Haci I حجي بالتركيه   Geray in 1449.  Olubei علو بيه son of  Theodoro (Gothic) capital Doro ((Theodoro) was closely allied with the empire of Tribzond, Turkish vassal of Ottomas.

     The position of khan in Cremea was electoral and was picked by beys بكوات  - بك  from four of the most notable families known also as Kepchucks , Shirines, Kuittan,  …) , the mainly elected khan  was raised on a white sheet and over him were read Islamic prayers.

      After the Crimean Franco – Prussia war between Russia and Turkey the Yalta treaty 1853-56 deprived Ottomans of most of their lands.

     Then the cleansing task was continued as Stalin evacuated the Moslem Crimean inhabitants to central Asia.

 

Eslam in Transcaucasia :

     Khanates of the Caucasian or Azerbaijan khanates : modern day republic of Armenia , Georgia and Dagestan.

     From the late Safavides الصفويون   to the Qaja dyasty, mostly ruled by khans of Turkic origin (Azeri).

     Principalities established by Persian khanates on their territories in the Caucasian.

     Safavides  الدوله الصفويه   (1501-1722)  :  ruled and controlled Iran, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Armenia, east Georgia, north Caucas, Iraq, Afghanistan, Turkestan, Uzbekistan. Parts of Syria, Philistine and Turkey.

Caucasian Albania (Azerbaija and Dagestan).

The Kara Khanid  أل افراسياب  

Al Afrasiab Turkish dynasty ruled Transoxiana  in central Asia – or the IlliKhanides   - Karakhagan.

Kara = black = hidden.

 

Illyrkhan : northwestern part of the Balkhan peninsula.  Inhabited from 19th century BC by Illyrians , and Indo-European people at the height of their power.  The Illyrian frontier extended from the Danube river southward to the Adriatic sea and from there, mountain to Danube river west Germany ending in the black sea.  It passes through ten countries.

 

 

Eslam in Georgia :

Known to Greco-Romans as Iberei  Zokolich

     Kurlty Iberia.  Ibyre Zkolich  ايبيريا ذكولخيس عند الاغريق والرومان   

Known to be the land where Yafeth son of Noah came to.

     By 4th c. Romans imposed Christianity on its inhabitants.

     By the seventh century , in 645 AD, Georgia was part of the Arabian Moslem Caliphate with other Trans-Caucasian cities and provinces around the Caspian sea.   Moslems  ruled from 7th to 11th c AD . Zkolich (Georgia) as other Moslem states  enjoyed self rule by its inhabitants.

     Under Baghran, eastern and western  Georgia were united with Armenia and other Moslem states southern Caucaz as he was able to unify more than 200,000 families in that realm.

     Expanding under Seljuk Romans to Anatolia and most of Turkey.

 

     By the end of the eleventh century , David IV called the constructor  (1089-1125) attacked  the Caspian conquering Georgia  and adding Armenia attacking  Moslem lands and trying to expel  them  from the area.

In 1236 Mongols appeared and  the area came under the Moslem khanates rule then Tamerlane.

       In the middle ages Georgia was divided between  Persia (Safavids)) east – Persian Takhiti  سيخلولت كارتلي وتاخيتي   and the Ottomans Kurtely in the west.

     In 1747 with the death of the last Moslem ruler of the kingdom  Nader Shah, Russians interfered  and according to Georgyvich treaty 1783 it was passed to the Russ as a Russian protectorate.  By 1785-1795 Turkey fought to regain it.  But in 1801 Russia occupied it.   Teblise was ruined and its last Moslem  ruler Soloman II  died  abroad 1815.

     After the Bolshvec revolution.  Georgia declared its independence 1918.

www.Wiki.

     War erupted between Georgia and Armenia that ended with British interference 1918-1919.

     Georgia became a British protectorate till 1920.

     Georgi Sveli attacked the white army.   In 1921 Russia interfered.  

     In 1922 Georgia , Armenia  and Azerbaijan  became part of Soviet federation. 

     In 1924 Russia oppressed the Georgian revolution .  And in 1936 the 3 countries became part of the Soviet Federation republic of USSR.

     In 1991 after Soviets’ dissolution, Georgia announced its independence.

Britannica.com

Abkhazia principality in Georgia : formerly ruled by Abkhazi (Ab haci) family of Anchabadge.

     The state witnessed the Sukhuni massacres of Moslems in Georgia Abkhazia by the pro-Russian separatist militias.

 

Odessa : found by Haci I khan of Crimea northwest of the black sea.

Under Ottoman’s rule from 1529.

     In the modern time it was divided according to the Trianon treaty 1920, and administered by the newly created kingdom of Serbs , Croats and Slovenia.  The remainder was assigned to Hungary.

 

Eslam in Baltic countries :

     Baltic countries around the Baltic coast : Estonia, Croatia, Lithuania and previously also Finland all came under the Moslem Caliphate’s rule and later under gigantic Moslem Khanates of the east.

     During the middle ages, following the Lithuanian crusades and others, they added to their realms  additional cities in the Baltic region, after being stormed and attacked.

     Sweden then emerges as ally to the Francs.

     In 1199, Innocent III declared a crusade to fight in Livonia.  Fighting reached Estonia in 1206.  German Livonian brothers of the sword who had previously subjugated Livonian, Tat-Galian and Selonians’ territories started campaigning against Estonia 1208.

     Lembiti iof Sakala resisted.  Sakala was an anciet Estonian country.  Aided by Teutonic order crusade , they continued their attacks along the Baltic sea.  Their realm expanded to include at various times: Lithuania, Latvia, Poland and Prussia.   All stormed , attacked and forcibly Christianized.

     Last of crusades conquered Gotland, Livonia, Neunmark, Pomeria , Saringitia.

 

 

     The Danube river :  located in central and eastern Europe, once a long standing frontier of the Roman empire.  The lake flows through ten countries originating in Germany and emptying into the black sea’

     It came under the caliphate’s Moslem rule as did regions of the Don river.

The Don river : fifth  largest river in Europe.

In antiquity the river was used as the border between Europe and Asia.

 

Persia – The crucial states :

Khorasan – Buchara  خراسان و بخاري  

     Khorasan :

Northeastern Iran.  Sometimes identified synonymously with Parthia.

     Cradle of the Zoroastrian religion and the ancient Persian Sassanian empire.

     Historical region, extended from Amu Darya (Oxus river) to the Caspian sea, stretching to India (Greater Khorasan). خراسان بزرك  

     Nisapor and Tous نيسابور و طوس   known as Mashhad

     Balkh and Merw known as Khorasan region.

          It was part of the Persian Achaemenian empire 6-4th century BC. , and the Parthian empire 3rd c. BC – 3rd c., Ad.

     First named by the Sassanians, Khorasan literally meaning  the land of the sun.

     Arabs seized Khorasan in 651 CE.  It later became a center for Iranian eastern Islamic culture.

     Later in the mid eighth century, Persian forces  were gathered to eradicate Omayyad ruling dynasty and their Arabian vassals.

     The wali of Khorasan Abdala ibn Zeyad was the first to cross the river to Khorasan.  Then The Omayad Caliph Moawya put Said son of Othman Ibn Afan wali on it 706 AD, as kutaiba Ibn Moslem el Bahly entered Samark and Tansoxiana  705 ما وراء النهر  .

 

     Marw (Merv) مرو  

     Central Asia , on ancient silk road. 

Merv = Persian Achaemenid strapay of Margiana.  Later Alexandria       Margiana.  Merv became the neucleus of Khorasan.

     Sellucid ruler Antiochas soter renamed Merv as Antiocha Margiana.

     Bactrians, Parthians and Kushans took control in succession.

     The Persian king Yazdegerd III (632-651AD) was killed not far from the city.  It became capital of the Omayyad Caliphate city of Khorasan.

     Later the Iranian general (Abo Isaac) who used the city as a house of rebellion against the Omayyad ruling dynasty , claimed to convert and changed his name to AboMuslim as he declared a new Abassid dynasty at Merw.

     Also the influential Barmakid family البرامكه  based in Merw, played an important part in transferring Greek knowledge (established in Merw since the Sellucids and Greco-Bactrians) into the Arab world..

Arab cities spread around Marw and as Islamic eastern Iranian cultures ensued.

     It was the largest city in the world in the twelfth century.

(probably stretched to ancient European Merovia).

 

Khorasan regined independent under Tahirids , Safavids and Samanids ; then part of Ghazavids, Seljuk Romans and Khawarezm shah kingdoms.

     It was overrun by Genghis khan in 1220, then Tamerlane 1383.      

     Safavids kings 1502-1736 fought against Uzbeks.  It was occupied by Afghans and in 1722-1730, Nader Shah broke their supremacy and made Mashhad the capital of his Iranian empire.

     Fardousi الفردوسي  , author of Shah-namah (Book of kings), and Omar Khayam were born there.

     Khorasan’s current frontiers were defined in 1881.  It was split into three smaller provinces in 2004.

  

     In 819 the governor of Khorasan rewarded Saman descendants Asad ‘s four sons for their aid against his enemies.

 

Samans :

     Samanids’ dynasty 819-999 .

     Landlords  in Balkh.

     Iranian dynasty that arose in what is now eastern Iran and Uzbekistan.

     The dynasty was re-known for the impulse it gave to Iranian national sentiment and learning.

     Four grandsons of the dynasty’s founder Saman Khoda have been rewarded for their services to the Abbasid Caliph.  Nasser son of Ahmed became governor of Transoxania  (central Asiaما وراء النهر )  ) 875 . 

     Ismail threw the Safavids 892- 907 in Khorasan 900 ,thus establishing rule in Transoxania and Khorasan, with Buchara as capital and the foundation of Islamic Iranian culture was laid.

    In 999 Bughra khan grandson of the Karlug confederation occupied Buchara, the Samanid’s capital.  Samanids domains were split between karakhanides who gained Transoxania and Ghaznavides who gained khorasan.

     Karakhanid also Ilkhanid 999-1211 (Turkish dynasty).

Samanid’s origin : their eponymous great khan was landlord in the district of Balkh aclaimed to be a descendant of Bahram Chalim the Sassanian general who was fighting Arabs in Kesra’s army.

Samanids became nominally the Tahirid’s vassals.

 

Buchara بخاري  :

    According to the Persian Shanama الملحمه الايرانيه شهنامه  it was erected by king Cerosh son of Kikaos in 500 BC.  

     Greek city Bactria.

     South central city of Uzbekistan , west of Samarkad .  A major trade of crafts center along the silk road since earlier than the first century CE.  Came under Arab rule in 709.

     Eslam entered Buchara 90 هجريه.  Where its ruler was Werdan khodah.

     It was capital of the Samanid dynasty in the nineth and tenth century AD.

     Later seized by the kharakanides and Karatulais before Genghis khan’s attacks in 1220.  Then it came under Tamerlane’s rule (( تيمور لنك

     In 1506 it was conquered by the Shahanids  الشاهات  who made it capital and became known as the khanate of Buchara.

Khanates of Buchara and Khiva. 16th c.

Khiva = Khawarizm.

     Bukhara was under the rule of Tahirids of Khorasan 873 till Samansالسامان     made Bukhara their capital.  Mother tongue of the city of Bukhara is Tajik. Located on the silk road , one of its names Bumiskat or Madinet el Tugar مدينه التجار  .

     Narshegy narrates the people in Bukhara used to claim Eslam but after Arabs leave the city they practice their old religion .

     Bukhara was an important trading center .  It was a Jewish merchants settlement who settled there since the Roman age and who left in the twentieth century 1925- 2000 to Israel.

     Today it is part Of Uzbekistan , separated from the Soviet Union in 1924.

     Some of Uzbekistan’s important cities are : its capital Tashkand , Samarkand, Khawarizm.

Citizens speak Uzbek and Russian.

Bukhara Uzbek Bukhoro or Buxoro.

 

Al Buchari : البخاري   

Descedant of Bardze family بردزيه   810-870 AD.

     He left to Buchara to which his name is attributed.  It is said that his origin is Turkish from Uzbekistan.

      His family were originally zoraostrians. 

      In his last days , he was ousted from Khorasan and Buchara and left to Samarkand where he died in Khertenk.

     While Abassids killed most of Arabian scientists and clergymen and imprisoned those who resisted or didn’t obey ; those who followed their orders were lavishly rewarded.

     The era witnessed most of the doctrines adopted by muslims till present especially under orders of El Mamon المأمون   caliph presented to them as sacred.  Any later renovations was prohibited culminating in the four sharia doctrines. كتب الشريعه   followed till present.

 

Balkh

     Balkh is considered to be the first city to which the Indo-Iranian tribes moved from the north to Amo Darya 2000-15000 BC.  The city was a center of zoroastrianism (Zariasp), the place where Zoroaster first preached his religion and died.

Aryan : brought the indo Iranian language to major parts of Eurasia, Asia and Europe .

(Balkhan Daglary = mountains), Balkan

 

Herate city western Afghanistan حرات - هرات  

 

Khawarizm  خوارزم  : (Chorasmia) xvarezm

     Historical site in Uzbekistan. 

     Large oasis region in the Amu Darya river delta in central Asia.  It was center of series of kingdoms such as the Persian whose capital among others were Kush, Gurgani and from the sixteenth century Khiva.  Today belongs to Uzbekistan, parts in Kazakhestan and Turkmenstan.     

     Khawarizm shahat dynasty : established after the Seljuk Romans’ dynasty ended.   خوارزم شاهات  

     In 1873  Russians launched an attack.  Then corporate into USSR 1924 and being part of the Uzbek Soviet socialist republic.

 

Eslam at Singapore :

      Same story part of the Eslamic civilization at anciet times.

      Foreign attacks , occupation , civil wars , peace treaty , divided and separated from an Eslamic city  – self rule and independence.

      By the 15th c., attacked by British forces.

     And as usual no accurate recorded history before the middle ages .

 

 

Burma (Mianmar):

     Muslims  From a majority ruling , to a minority ethnic cleansed.

     The Persian mythology of Afrasiab  افراسياب   (in Herate city), narrates about Afrasiap’s daughter (Kaz – قز ) to whom is attributed Caucas regionقزوين ,  who after her husband was killedو built a city commemorating his death Yenkand يانكند    she also built Casuin , Kum –قم  ,  Merw, and other cities and she built a castle in wadi ila (irawadi), وادي ايلا   .  .Maىy other cities northern India were built during Afrasiap’s time as Kandahar ..etc..

     Barman son of Alp Artunga built Barman city.

      Alp Artunga (Tunga Altuwar),  is considered grandfather of all Turks.  To his son Barman was attributed the city of Barma.

www.ahewar.net

     In medieval times , Rhanghar khanates  خانات رونغهار    centered In Eurasia valleys (wadies) stretched from Western China’s great wall to Kazakhistan west, and from Khyrgistan to Siberia.

     The term Roharengh relates to an old Rohagh settlements by the 8thc. And where Arabs built their centers in Arakan specially in the cities of Mraic yu , Kia and Ksao.

www.aluka.net

     Islam entered Burma during the seventh century AD through Arakan  اراكان  by Arabian and Persian merchants and sailors.  Moslems settled in Irawadi (wadi and Arabian word meaning valley) and other cities. In Patin’s  most of its citizens were Moslems.  Eslam spread after it was adopted by its inhabitants .  They reached Yunan in China (north Burma), as recorded in Chinese chronicles who called those Moslems Pati Moslem also reached China via eastern Indian Peninsulas.

     Islam spread without boundries as Moslems became the majority rulers.  Mian  (oldest groups who inhabited lower Burma mingled with Pyuis (Tibet Burmans ) and they shared active roles in the trade routes between China and India 

     Historians record Arabian trade in the 10th century and mention that many merchants were Moslem Burmese.and that many used to travel to Malacca during the reign of Eskandar Shah Malacca’s sultan.

     Between 15-17th century, many documents records Moslem Burmese’ trade, merchants, and citizens along the seacoast from Arakan to Irawadi valley and other Burmese coasts.

     Various Arabian cities were erected .  Agriculture and trade flourished.  Trade with Yunan region in China flourished .  Moslem Arabian, Persian, Turkish, Chinese, Indians , Moro , Bengal , Melayo merchants and travelers poured to the region.

     In the 17th century Merghoy records having a Moslem ruler and the king’s deputies and ministers were Moslems.  Many mosques , some called Badr Mokan (Badr eldin , one of the religious men), were established.   In 1711 king Sin had an Arabian leader for the marine fleet (Astol- اسطول ) , and the kings guard were also Moslems and were employed in the Burmese army..

Documentation for ports and shahbandars (merchants) were by Arabs. 

And Moslem embassies were sent abroad. (records for Moslem embassies sent to the Mongol emperors).

       Nangao kingdom (Yunan- China) tried to invade Irawadi several times. 

      In the 13th c. AD, Mongols attacked Burma. 

     Later the Moslem Mongol leader Kublai khan was ruling in northern Burma by1277 as Ningan was also occupied 1287.  Moslem khanates rule continued nearly  200 years .  Vietnam , Thailand, other states were parts of it.

     1430-1784 Solomon Shah ruled.  After him 48 succcessive Moslem kings ruled in Burma

     Later , Nangao kingdom was divided to several principalities, Afa , bago , Rakhin ,  etc….

And Burma was separated from Thailand. 

     Bahader Shah attacked Tabensos , king of Taiga 1530-50, but with the help of Mian Moslems the Taigo king won.

     In the 16th c., Portuguese forces attacked the region and together  with anti-Muslim seperatist  militias , they attacked Bago, capital of Rakhin and Philip De Brito established  a Portuguese government in its most important sea port.

     But the Burmese under king Alonghnoya  (1602-1628) resisted. 

     The Mian with the help of the French rose against the Tang rulers 1740 , and aided by the Thais they occupied the capital Afa. 

     Alonghbuya  put the basis for the city of Ranghon رانغون.  1755.

     In 1846-1853 Yu Shoi was a Moslem Burmese ruler of the capital Emara bura اماره بورا  and his minister was Mue Baing ميو باينج  who built a bridge from wooden ivory.  Baga’s rulers were Moslems so were their counselors and translators.

     The last Indian Mongol emperor Bahader Shah was ousted to Bago with his family and some of his followers, where he was buried 1862, as the British conquered all Burma.

Ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/

     After the European invasion to Burma 1785, nearly 35,000 Moslems from Arakan moved to  near Benghal that was under British occupation hoping to find help, as the fanatic Buddhist (Buda bey بودا بيه ) persecuted and killed Moslems.

     In 1824 England conquered Mianmar and united it with the British Indian colonial government.

     British attacked and defeated the Burmese in 1824-1826, and occupied the main sea ports, Irawadi, Ranghon, Bago and called it lower Burma.

     In their third attack they occupied the capital Mandlay, and the ruling dynasty was scattered and escaped to the state of Rotenghary in India. 

     Rebellion didn’t  stop  till 1896

Qr.wikipedia.org/wiki/تاريخ-بورما

     In 1937 Britain separated Burma from the British Indian colony.  Moslems rose against the British.   But Britain supplied the minority Buddhists with weapons, as they committed the 1942 horrifying massacres that slaughtered more than 100,000 Moslems and caused the immigration of more than 4.3 million others fleeing their atrocities.

     In 1962, the pro-British Burmese army made a coup and a Burmese military system of generals ruled with an iron fist, depriving Moslems of their rights in education , jobs in government, practicing their religious rituals, forcing thousands to flee to primitive forest shelters and even forbade them from leaving Burma.

     Today the cleansing process could be witnessed with Burmese president on top of responsibility , who was one of the Nobel prize awardees.

 

Korea  الغوريه

Ghurid dyasty in northern India   الدوله الغوريه

www.yjc.ir/ar/news/2075

 

     Korean resources certifies  that Eslam entered Korea in the seventh century by Moslem merchants as local inhabitants adopted it from them. 

http://Saiid.net

     Korea was also called the Huns.  Shla people inhabited its land 57 BC – 937 AD.

     The year 935 witnessed the end of the last three Korean kingdoms as Ghuris made of it a united  civilized center.    The Ghuride dynasty.

     In 1230 Korea came under the Mongol rule , but Ghurids who made peace with them continued to rule till 1392 .

     During the 15th c., civil wars erupted , ending in Goson’s dynasty’s rule  which lasted for about 200 years.  The capital became Ghuson from old Ghu. غور

     Later the capital was transferred to Hasung (present Soul).

     In 1591-1598 Japan invaded Korea.

     Again in 1915, Japan conquered Korea till the second world war, as it gave up in 1945.  And Korea was divided north handled to U.S.S.R.,  and south for the United States .

     In the modern age , during Korea’s civil war and the arrival of multinational forces, more than 4000 Koreans adopted Islam from Moslem Turkish cops.

 

 

     certainly Islamic civilization had reached Japan through China and Korea at that early age before Japan was conquered by army generals.

 

Tibet : التبت  

     Eslam had reached Tibet too, north western China.

Also called Zirangh زيرانغ  بنيانه  Xizang….

   It had relations with the Chinese dynasties.  After the Mongol invasion it was put under Yunan’s administration in the 13th and 14th century.

     Then it became a Chinese protectorate and was joined to China to defend the Japanese invasion in world War II.

     In 1950 Chinese army defeated Tibet and Lasaa was added. 

     After Tibet’s revolt 1959,  there ensued a military struggle that ended in 1962.  

 

Wiki.

 

Yes there ought to be someone

       Standing ending what’s far done .

Or just leave them to their fate

                                                                  We can just standby and wait

 

 

Notes :

 

     Two clans of the Avars were Jews who fought with Persians against Romans .  In 1626, Persians tried to trap Romans in from the east of the  Byzantine Peninsula, as Avars were helping Persians from the western part in Europe.  But Romans finally won and Anatolia , with the rest of Byzantine Roman states in a few years .

     This have to remind us of the Arabian Jew kings from Hemiar in Yemen who moved to Iraq and settled at Kurk (الكرك) and sided with the Persians as other Arabian kings in the north Gassasna الغساسنه  (previously in Tuhama-Yemen,then moved north to Syria) whom Romans imposed Christianity on by the 4th c. AD and were their allies against Persians. 

-The Seljuks probably descendants or another name for Selucids سلوقي    under Modlem rule.

-Kurk –near to Kurt or Kurd!

-The Turco-Persian history is so interwoven.

-Waves of tribal immigrations to Europe by the 8th c., AD was to an already Eslamic Europe.  Probably Abbasids’ vassals or allies who raided Arabian cities.

-Even Seljuks raided the already Moslem cities in Asia while re-opening it for their reign.   

-As Moslems cleansed from Europe or elsewhere were termed Turks despite their being aboriginal native citizens; the same strategy was applied for calling all Moslem tribes in the medieval, all were termed Turks even those who adopted Eslam from  Avars, Magyars or even Chinese citizens ….!

-Tujur Arabian word for merchants تجار   , who in the 7th  century founded an empire stretching from Asia to eastern Europe were also identified as  Turks.

-Contemporary clans who are classified as Turkic in Europeans’ pilings include the Altai, Azerbaijans, Balkan, Bashkir, Dolgan, Karachay, Karakalpoles, Kazakhs, Kakass, Kepchuk, Kyrgys, Tyvans, Ughurs, Uzbecks, Chinese, even the Persian and ancient Greeks and other Europeans who had adopted Eslam.

-The Balkan mountain had been called by the local Thraceans Haemos (Aimos) or monte Titan. (Typhon).

-Pecheneg parallels the word Bosnia in Arabic بوشناق   البوسنه -

-kara= black = hidden

-Waldslaw = Vladislav = ولد سلاف

-Vladimir = ولد امير

-Vazul = Vassili = Basel باسل

 

Question :

-Why did Abassids like Europeans ignore recording that early important phase of Islamic  civilization especially of the seventh and 8th  century, unless if it’s a strategy for a mutual benefit and end and unless too the foe seems mutual.

-the question that should likely be asked : why have Moslems taken and followed such doctrines presented by rulers of that times even after those rulers are deceased and gone .. the answer is because the system is still there.  And the aim is to keep these countries retarded and divided by all means.

-whatever explanations or Arabian excuses for adopting such doctrines those countries  presented as sacred by caliph Mamon, there’s no excuse acceptable for disobeying The Prophet by any new ruler for any assumed presented reasons.

     There’s the obvious advise that those who had deviated their religion into shias (sects) you’re nothing from them, stated in the Koran and no excuse seems acceptable.

The inescapable resemblance of tactics and methods:

      Usually beginning by dividing land among four sons (the tradition of dividing patrimonies among brothers or sons.  One polity divided into several regna (subkingdoms).   As did Clovis, Samans, even Seljuk I , son of Toqaq who started his career as an officer in the khazar army.  The Seljuk ruling military family that invaded most of eastern Asia by the 11th c. 

    The first : Clovis, who converted to Christianity and put himself on good terms with the powerful church ,later conquered most neighbors and incorporated them among his kingdom, distributed the grasped lands  among his 4 sons ( Merovingian king Cheldric their grandfather).

Cheldric = Salian Frankish line.

     The second Saman Khoda who was trusted by the Abassid caliph and was  attributed Transoxiana to be divided among his 4 grandsonsons : Noah, Ahmed, Yehia and Elias, sons of Assad.

    - Assad, named after the Abassid ruler Assad meaning lion.

    - Alp Arsalan also meaning brave Lion.

 

     The third distributed the areas among his 4 sons :Mekal, Musa, Israel and Unis (Jonah).  Under Malik’s son Tughrul, Seljuk’s went Khorasan raiding Moslem populace.   Wiki.    

  

     One should be careful and confused too, between real heroes and presented ones as heroes.

 

     Same tactics and methods : siege , storming , attacking, conquering, dividing, igniting civil wars,  destroying, evacuating, peace treaties then repopulating the area.

-the 4  bibles that was presented by the Roman church, as were the four Muslim doctrines that were presented by vassals of the Caliphs during the Samanids era as sacred preachings for the sharia.

 -Associating anything with the Koran was strictly forbidden by early Moslems even by Omayads.

     The similarity of methods entails a very well planned organized fraternity system, peaceful in appearance , very bloody in action,  implementation and secrecy …. Indeed.

 

Conclusion :

     Thus we are confronted with the fact that a global universal Islamic caliphate actually ruled from the seventh till eleventh century AD.

     We saw how Eslam spread and how hypocrites tried to regain their old dominions  and glories, but could only do this by pretending to be Moslems.  Few rulers for a majority Moslem citizens.  That was a plan.  And its foes knew that implementing it would be a long termed bloody one sealed with secrecy and inhumanity in many phases.

     But shall it work till the end ..

     We can only guess and wait  ..

 

 

 

 

References :

-www.Britannica.com

- www.Britannica.com/place/Uzbekistan

-www.wikipedia.org/wiki/

- www.wikipedia.org/wiki/تاريخ_بورما  

-www.yjc.ir/ar/news/2027

-en.wikipedia.org/wiki

-historum.com

-www.ancient.eu

-www.wikiwand.com

-mawdoo3.com/ ما_هي_دول_البلقان

-www.startimes.com

-islamport.com/w/own/3779بلغر5126.htm.

-gatescrasher.blogsot.com.eg

-marefa.org

-Abasay.yoh.com/pages/50

-www.Eu4wiki.com

-www.uncompedia.org/خانات_زنغهار

-www.wikiwand.com/ar/خانات_زنغار

 

 8-9-2017